Zuckertechnische Fachausdrücke


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Production of a magma by mixing sugar with syrup and then centrifuging the magma with or without washing

Affined sugar

Sugar purified by affination

After product sugar

Sugar of the final crystallization stage C sugar


In the product streams of a beet sugar factory, the result of a titration with standardized acid solution to a phenolphthalein endpoint or equivalent pH, expressed as g CaO per 100 ml

Alkalinity, effective

Alkalinity, natural

Alkalinity, optimal

Ash content

The solid residue left after incineration in the presence of oxygen (crude ash, carbonate ash). In analysis of sugar products, sulfuric acid is added to the sample, and this residue as sulfated ash heated to 800 °C is taken to be a measure of the inorganic constituents. Sometimes determined indirectly by measure of the electrical conductivity of solutions of the products.


Sugar beet root, botanically the thick main root with hypocotyl in which sugar is stored

Beet brei

Beet sample prepared for analysis in the form of fine particles

Beet clamp

Stack of stored beet

Beet flume

Concrete-lined ditch or metal trough designedfor the hydraulic transport of beet

Beet knife

Rectangular piece of steel designed to slice beet into cossettes

Beet pile

Store of beet in suitably prepared areas of the factory yard

Beet pump

Special centrifugal pump used to lift beet and water

Beet rasp, beet saw

Devices to obtain beet brei from beet samples

Beet sampler

Scooping device to collect beet samples

Beet saw, beet saw

Devices to obtain beet brei from beet samples

Beet tail

Elongated lower part of the beet

Beet tare

Earth and other materials brought with the beet to the factory

Beet tops

Beet leaves and petioles, which may or may not be accompanied by crowns or pieces of crowns that are removed in the field at the time of harvest 03. Jan

Beet washer

Installation for cleaning beet (e.g. jet washer, revolving-arm washer, drum washer, cyclone washer)

Beet washing

Process for cleaning beet 05.05.2004


Beet plant flowering and going to seed in its first year

Candy crystals

Large sugar crystals produced by a special crystallization process 19. Mai


Introduction of carbon dioxide gas into limed juice or syrup (e.g., first and second carbonation) 9.1.2

Carbonation gas

Gas rich in carbon dioxide for use in carbonation 10

Carbonation lime

Carbonation slurry after concentration with filter presses to about 70% DS precipitated calcium carbonate, factory wastelime*, lime cake*, lime cake*

Carbonation sludge

Carbonation slurry after concentration with vacuum filters to 4550 % DS

Carbonation slurry

Turbid liquid consisting of juice and carbonation precipitate (e.g. 1st carbonationslurry, 2nd carbonation slurry)

Carbonation slurry concentrate

Carbonation slurry after concentration with thickening filters or decanters




Apparatus for the elimination by sedimentation of suspended solids from a turbid liquid


Attenuation index, determined under defined conditions.According to ICUMSA the color is measured at 420 nm and given in ICUMSA units (IU). Most of data given in this book contain the index 420 or 560 for the wavelength, which is not in accordance with ICUMSA recommendations.

Color type

Result of the visual assessment of white sugar against standards

Condenser water

Mixture of condensate and cooling water produced by a direct-contact condenser 12.06.2001


Intergrown cluster of several crystals agglomerate*

Cooling crystallization

Crystallization by cooling of the magma 12.2.1012.2.12

Cooling crystallization effect

Difference in the purity of the mother liquor of the magma at the beginning and end of the crystallization by cooling

Cooling crystallizer

Vessel for crystallization by cooling 12.05.2002

Cossette scalder

Component of extraction plant, where 6.2.5


Beet slices produced by a beet slicer slices*, chips*

Crystal content

Proportion by mass of crystals in the magma

Crystal growth rate

Increase in crystal mass in relation to time and surface


Crystal fraction obtained by crystallization


Nucleation and growth of crystals

Crystallization rate

Crystal mass produced per time unit

Crystallization scheme

Defines the number of crystallization stages 12. Apr

Crystallization vapor

Vapor created in evaporating crystallization

Cycle time

(a) In batch evaporating crystallization: time from start of drawing in a charge to the beginning of the next (b) In centrifuging: time from start of loading the centrifugal to the beginning of the next charge Figure 13/3



Process step in juice purification in which the juice is simultaneously brought into contact with lime and carbon dioxide


Deliberate alteration of beet cells, often by heat, in preparation for extraction

Deteriorated beet

Beet of reduced suitability for processing due to external causes, e.g. frost

Dried pulp

Pulp, which has been dried and sometimes pelleted

Dried sugar beet cossettes

Commercial term for dried (including pressed) cossettes from which no sugar has been extracted

Dry substance

In most cases moisture-free substance

Dry substance content

Brix*. Findings should state the analytical method used (gravimetric, refractometric, aerometric)

Entrainment separator

Apparatus for removing syrup or magma from vapor 12.06.2006

Evaporating crystallization

Crystallization by evaporation of the solvent 12.1.6

Evaporating crystallization effect

Difference between the purity of the magma and the purity of the mother liquor of the magma on discharge

Evaporating crystallization process

Process of evaporating crystallization. Batch: from opening of the feed valve to discharge of the massecuite

Evaporating crystallizer

Apparatus for crystallization by evaporation 12.5.1

Evaporator effect

Evaporator(s) operating at a given steam pressure (e.g. first effect, second effect). Condensates and vapors are labelled correspondingly (e.g. first condensate or vapor:condensate or vapor from the first effect)

Exhausted cossettes

Cossettes leaving the extraction plant pulp


Process of obtaining juice from sugar beet or sugar cane; the term diffusion should be used only for the physico-chemical process 6

Extraction fresh water

Water introduced into the extraction plant in addition to press water

Extraction losses

Quantity of sugar entered but not contained in the raw juice as a percentage of the beet or cane mass 25. Feb

False grain

Undesirable small crystals

Fanged beet

Beet with multiple tap roots

Feed syrup

Supply syrup for crystallization

Flume water

Water used to transport beet

Green run-off (syrup)

First syrup produced on centrifuging a magma 13.02.2001

Injection water

Water for jet condenser

Invert sugar

Mixture of (close to) equal parts of glucose and fructose resulting from the hydrolysis of sucrose (inversion) invert

Juice purification

Partial removal of nonsugar substances from the raw juice while producing a thin juice 9

Knife block

Box-like device used to hold a number of knives in the disk or drum of a slicing machine


Process step in juice purification in which quicklime or milk of lime is introduced into the juice (also preliming, main liming, intermediate liming before 2nd carbonation) 09.01.2002


Mixture of crystals and syrup


Magma in evaporating or cooling crystallizer, mixer or centrifugal


Apparatus to distribute magma to the centrifugals

Molassed dried pulp

Commercial term for a mixture of dried pressed pulp and molasses 7.5


The sugar-bearing product of the sugar end whose purity has been reduced to the point that further crystallization of sugar is not economical feasible without special treatment of molasses (chapter 17) 20

Monogerm seed

Genetically single-germ seed

Mush content

Portion of cossettes less than 1 cm long


Substances contained in raw material and ist products except sucrose and water

Nonsucrose content

Difference between dry substance content and its sucrose content


Common overall term for substances contained in the raw materials and products of the sugar industry except sucrose (sugar) and water

Nonsugar content

Difference between dry substance content and sugar content in the meaning of Sugar content (a) and (b) (q.v.)


Generation and development of small crystals capable of growth

Pelleted seed

Beet seed brought to uniform size by coating

Piled beet

Stored beet (as distinct from freshly harvested beet)


Term customarily used in sugar analysis for the optical rotation of a sugar industry product, measured under the same conditions

Precision seed

Monogerm seed produced from multi-germ seed by rubbing and grading

Preparation index

Percentage ratio of dry substance in ruptured cells to total dry substance in cane Pol-in-open-cells

Press water

Liquid effluent from the pulp presses

Press water pulp

Particles of exhausted cossettes contained in the press water

Pressed pulp

Pressed, exhausted cossettes, leaving the pulp presses 07. Jan

Processed seed

Beet seed brought to a uniform size by mechanical treatment and screening


Sugar content as percent of dry substance content 25. Jan

Raw juice

Juice obtained from beet or cane after extraction, pressing or milling mixed juice (cane)

Raw juice draft

Mass of juice drawn from the extraction plant as percent of mass of cossettes introduced 25. Feb

Recoverable sugar

Part of the sugar in beet, which can be obtained as white sugar in % on beet 3.2, eq. (3.1)

Reducing substances


Purification of sugar through recrystallizing and chemical and physical methods 12.04.2003

Remelt syrup

Solution of washed or affined sugar 12.04.2003

Run-off (syrup)

General term for syrups produced on centrifuging a magma 13

Sand separator

Apparatus which separates sand and earth from a liquid stream, such as raw juice, press water, or flume water 06.02.2007

Seed magma

Suspension of crystals as the basis for controlled crystal growth 12.02.2007


(a) Mechanical or thermal intervention with the aim of inducing nucleation (b) Introduction of a finite number of crystal fragments in form of a slurry for crystal growth 12.02.2004

Silin number

Length in meters of 100 grams of cossettes

Single-germ seed

General term for precision and monogerm seed

Slicer (beet)

Machine designed to hold knives in knife blocks to produce cossettes slicing machine, cutter*

Sludge transport water

Water for the hydraulic transport of carbonation sludge or beet soil

Soil separator

Equipment for the mechanical separation of soil from beet

Stone separator

Equipment for the mechanical separation of stones or rocks from beet


Common term for the disaccharide a-d-glucopyranosyl-b-d-fructofuranoside

Sucrose content

See: Sugar content


Term for the disaccharide sucrose and products of the sugar industry essentially composed of sucrose

Sugar content

(a) Sucrose content The determination is normally done by polarimetry. Is the term used in this respect, the fact remains unaccounted, that in addition to sucrose other sugars are present. Zahlenangaben nur mit Kennzeichnung der Analysenmethode.

Sugar content

(b) Total sugar content In the case of technical products with substantial presence of other sugars (i.e. liquid sugars) the term total sugar should be used. Zahlenangaben nur mit Kennzeichnung der Analysenmethode, meist als Saccharose oder als Invertzucker berechnet. Gesamtzucker ist kein Begriff

Sugar content

(c) Recoverable sugar Relative Messzahl für den Anteil des Zuckers in der Rübe, der unter standardisierten Bedingungen als Weißzucker im Fabrikationsprozess gewinnbar ist


Introduction of sulfur dioxide to juice 09.02.2004

Supersaturation coefficient

Quotient formed by dividing the sugar/water ratio of a supersaturated solution by the sugar/water ratio of a saturated solution under the same conditions (temperature and purity or nonsugar/water ratio), eq. (12.3)

Supersaturation, critical

Supersaturation at which nucleation begins spontaneously

Swedish number

Ratio of the mass of cossettes longer than 5 cm to those shorter than 1 cm


General term for sugar solutions of higher concentration

Tailings separator

Apparatus for the ballistic separation of tails (beet particulate material) from trash

Thick juice

Concentrated juice following evaporation syrup

Thickening filter

Apparatus for concentrating the sediment in carbonation slurry by filtering

Thin juice

Evaporator supply juice which may have been delimed or sulfitated clarified juice, evaporator supply juice

Top tare

The part of the beet to which the petioles are attached; botanical the epicotyl


(a) Separation of the beet tops (b) Removing part of the cane stalk above natural breaking point

Transport water

Water used to transport beet

Trash separator

Device for the removal of vegetable matter floating in flume and wash water

Ventilation of stored beet

Introduction of air current in order to maintain desired storage temperature

Wash run-off (syrup)

Syrup produced in washing sugar during centrifuging


Washing of the crystals during centrifuging with syrup, water or steam 13.01.2001

Washing off

Unloading of beet by water jet